DASH7 is an ultra-low power (coin cell batteries) wireless sensor networking technology originally created for military use and now being repurposed for commercial applications. DASH7's has a range of more than 2 kilometers, 10 year battery life, "mesh" capabilities, and penetrates concrete and water.
Also known as ISO 18000-7, DASH7 is an open standard operating in the unlicensed 433 MHz spectrum with support for sensors, encryption, and other features. 433 MHz is available for use worldwide and can be used to monitor temperature of flu vaccines, monitoring the exact pressure in automobile tires, monitoring electrical usage in a building, or monitoring CO2 emissions from a vehicle.
More: Wikipedia and http://www.DASH7.org/